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20.0 Internal Flash [T-Series Datasheet]

Overview

T-series devices have 4 MB of internal flash.

Internal flash memory is divided into two regions:

  • The User Area is the first 2 MB and is available for storing user-data.
  • The Reserved Area is the remaining 2 MB and is used to store important device information such as calibration constants.

Each region has a starting address, a length, and a key.

Flash Addresses

Internal flash is addressed by byte, but accessed by 32-bit values. That means that the first value is at address zero and the second is at address 4. (These are flash addresses—not to be confused with Modbus addresses.)

Following are some important flash addresses:

Address Name Address Length
User Area 0x0 2 MB Key: 0x6615E336 (1712710454 in decimal)
Reserved Area 0x200000   2 MB
Calibration Constants (in Reserved Area) 0x3C7000   4 kB Key: 0x43A24C42 (1134709826 in decimal)

Reading

To read from flash, write the desired address to INTERNAL_FLASH_READ_POINTER and then read an even number of registers from INTERNAL_FLASH_READ:

Name Start Address Type Access

INTERNAL_FLASH_READ_POINTER             The address in internal flash that reads will start from.

61810 UINT32 R/W

INTERNAL_FLASH_READ             Data read from internal flash.

61812 UINT32 R

Writing and Erasing

Key

For a region to be written to or to be erased, the key for that region must be written to the INTERNAL_FLASH_KEY register:

Name Start Address Type Access

INTERNAL_FLASH_KEY             Sets the region of internal flash to which access is allowed.

61800 UINT32 R/W

The key prevents accidental overwrites. The value in INTERNAL_FLASH_KEY will be cleared when the Modbus packet that wrote it has been fully processed, so INTERNAL_FLASH_KEY must be written in the same packet that does INTERNAL_FLASH_WRITE or INTERNAL_FLASH_ERASE. The LJM Multiple Value functions simplify this.

Writing

To write to flash, the area to be written to must first be erased. Once erased, write the key for the desired region to INTERNAL_FLASH_KEY, write the desired address to INTERNAL_FLASH_WRITE_POINTER, and then write an even number of registers to INTERNAL_FLASH_WRITE:

Name Start Address Type Access

INTERNAL_FLASH_WRITE_POINTER             Address in internal flash where writes will begin.

61830 UINT32 R/W

INTERNAL_FLASH_WRITE             Data written here will be written to internal flash. This register is a buffer.

61832 UINT32 W
 

Erasing

Flash is erased 4 kB at a time. Erasing sets all bits to 1. To erase a 4 kB region, write the key for the desired region to INTERNAL_FLASH_KEY and the desired address to INTERNAL_FLASH_ERASE:

Name Start Address Type Access

INTERNAL_FLASH_ERASE             Erases a 4k section of internal flash starting at the specified address. This register is a buffer.

61820 UINT32 W

The address will be rounded down to the nearest 4 kB boundary. Boundaries are easy to identify when the address is displayed in hexadecimal because the lower three digits will be zero. 4 kB is hexadecimal is 0x1000.

Endurance

Flash memory can only be erased so many times before bit errors will start to occur; it is important not to erase or write flash needlessly. Typical life of flash memory is at least 10,000 cycles.