Published on *LabJack* (https://labjack.com)

The voltages discussed in this app note are dangerous to people and equipment. Only qualified individuals should engage in these measurements.

The first question is what do you want to measure? Voltage, current, power? Do you want the waveform, or perhaps you just want a singular value that represents RMS, true RMS, maximum, minimum or frequency? The most common answer is that someone simply wants to get a value such as "120.0" that is the RMS of the AC voltage.

The easiest and safest solution is to use a sensor or transducer that connects to the AC voltage and outputs an isolated DC signal that is proportional to AC RMS. Same goes for current or power measurement. Some possible sources are listed below.

You need to reduce the voltage to the analog input range of the LabJack which is usually ±10V.

- Transformer: Provides isolation, but accuracy is often a problem.
- Resistive Divider: Simple but no isolation. Can even be done with a series resistor in front of an LJTick-Divider. The lack of isolation provides added danger, so do not attempt unless you know what you are doing.
- Sensor or Transducer: The best option is to find a sensor or transducer made to do just this.

Isolation is recommended between AC mains and the LabJack.

Some transducers will output a DC signal that is proportional to the RMS of the AC voltage. This is very simple to measure. Other transducers will simply output an AC signal that is an attenuated version of the original signal, in which case you have to acquire the waveform and then do the desired math to get the value you want (e.g. RMS). T-series devices have AIN-EF features that might be able to do the desired math (e.g. RMS) for you.

You need to convert current to the analog input range of the LabJack which is usually ±10V.

- Current Transformer: Low cost solution that provides isolation. AC output signal requires math to get RMS.
- Resistive Shunt: No isolation and can be expensive. The lack of isolation provides added danger, so do not attempt unless you know what you are doing.
- Sensor or Transducer: The best option is to find a sensor or transducer made to do just this.

Isolation is recommended between AC mains and the LabJack.

Some transducers will output a DC signal that is proportional to the RMS of the AC current. This is very simple to measure. Other transducers will simply output an AC signal that is an attenuated version of the original signal, in which case you have to acquire the waveform and then do the desired math to get the value you want (e.g. RMS). T-series devices have AIN-EF features that might be able to do the desired math (e.g. RMS) for you.

If a transducer says it provides "RMS", and does not say "True RMS", it is likely providing what we call a simple RMS. For example, perhaps it measures the max of the signal and divides that by 1.414. Such math is only valid if the waveform is a perfect sine and does not account for any harmonics. You need to consider whether a simple RMS is sufficient for you application.

Power is voltage times current, so both must be known or measured. Energy is power over time.

Sometimes voltage is assumed to have a particular value. For example, 120 V RMS with 0 phase difference compared to current.

Sometimes the RMS (or True RMS) of the voltage is measured, but phase is still assumed to be 0.

If the voltage / current has any harmonics or phase difference, the only correct way to measure power is to acquire both waveforms and multiply them point-by-point to get the power waveform.

If the intention is to measure power, consider finding a power sensor rather than voltage and current sensors.

Here are some possible sources we found for sensors. Feedback is welcome on what anyone else finds or uses:

https://www.crmagnetics.com/analog-transducers

http://panelmeters.weschler.com/

http://www.ohiosemitronics.com/

https://www.pc-s.com/

https://www.flex-core.com/

http://transdatainc.com/

https://new.abb.com/

Example sensors / transducers from CR Magnetics:

CR4811, RMS AC Voltage Transducer

CR4511, True RMS AC Voltage Transducer

The -150 version of these produces a 0-10 VDC output proportional to 0-150 RMS input, so this would work great for measuring 120 VAC with the +/-10 volt analog inputs found on many LabJacks. If you want to use the low voltage analog inputs found on the U3/T4, consider the CR4810-500 or CR4510-500 which will give 1.2 VDC output for 120 VAC input.

A sensor running off 5 VDC would be ideal. The above CR Magnetics sensors require 24 VDC supply, but such a supply is easy to find. The following includes a handy little adapter to give you screw terminals for connecting:

https://smile.amazon.com/Signcomplex-Transformers-Switching-Household-Electronics/dp/B0797LCBYS